lions led by donkeys

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lions led by donkeys

bellend
605
Bacon's cipher, a method of steganography (hiding a secret message), is devised by Sir Francis Bacon.[5]
1614
John Napier publishes his work Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio introducing the concept of logarithms which simplifies mathematical calculations.[6][7]
1620
The first navigable submarine is designed by William Bourne and built by Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel.
1625
Early experiments in water desalination are conducted by Sir Francis Bacon.[8]
1657
Anchor escapement for clock making is invented by Robert Hooke.[9]
1667
A tin can telephone is devised by Robert Hooke.[10]
1698
The first commercial steam-powered device, a water pump, is developed by Thomas Savery.[11]
18th century[edit]
 

The Watt steam engine was conceived in 1765. James Watt transformed the steam engine from a reciprocating motion that was used for pumping to a rotating motion suited to industrial applications. Watt and others significantly improved the efficiency of the steam engine.
1701
An improved seed drill is designed by Jethro Tull.[12] It is used to spread seeds around a field with a rotating handle which makes seed planting a lot easier.
1712
The first practical steam engine is designed by Thomas Newcomen.[11][13]
1730
The Rotherham plough, the first plough to be widely built in factories and commercially successful, is patented by Joseph Foljambe.[14]
1737
Andrew Rodger invents the winnowing machine.
1740
The first electrostatic motors are developed by Andrew Gordon in the 1740s.[15]
1744
The earliest known reference to baseball is made in a publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, by John Newbery. It contains a rhymed description of "base-ball" and a woodcut that shows a field set-up somewhat similar to the modern game—though in a triangular rather than diamond configuration, and with posts instead of ground-level bases.[16]
1753
Invention of hollow-pipe drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple who died in 1753.[17]
1765
James Small advances the design of the plough using mathematical methods to improve on the Scotch plough of James Anderson of Hermiston.[18]
1767
Adam Ferguson (1767), often known as ‘The Father of Modern Sociology’, publishes his work An Essay on the History of Civil Society.[19]
1776
Scottish economist Adam Smith, often known as 'The father of modern economics',[20] publishes his seminal text The Wealth of Nations.[21][22]
The Watt steam engine, conceived in 1765, goes into production. It is the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric.
1781
The Iron Bridge, the first arch bridge made of cast iron, is built by Abraham Darby III.[11]
1783
A pioneer of selective breeding and artificial selection, Robert Bakewell, forms the Dishley Society to promote and advance the interests of livestock breeders.[23][24]
1786
The threshing machine is invented by Andrew Meikle.[25]
1798
Edward Jenner invents the first vaccine.
19th century[edit]
 

A trial model of a part of the Analytical Engine, first described by Charles Babbage in 1837[26]
1802
Sir Humphry Davy creates the first incandescent light by passing a current from a battery, at the time the world's most powerful, through a thin strip of platinum.
1804
The world's first locomotive-hauled railway journey is made by Richard Trevithick's steam locomotive.[27]
1807
Alexander John Forsyth invents percussion ignition, the foundation of modern firearms.
1814
Robert Salmon patents the first haymaking machine.
1822
Charles Babbage proposes the idea for a Difference engine, an automatic mechanical calculator designed to tabulate polynomial functions, in a paper to the Royal Astronomical Society entitled "Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables".[28]
1823
An improved system of soil drainage is developed by James Smith.[29]
1825
William Sturgeon invents the electromagnet.
1828
A mechanical reaping machine is invented by Patrick Bell.[30]
1831
Electromagnetic induction, the operating principle of transformers and nearly all modern electric generators, is discovered by Michael Faraday.
1835
Scotsman James Bowman Lindsay invents the incandescent light bulb.[31]
1836
The Marsh test for detecting arsenic poisoning is developed by James Marsh.[32]
1837
Charles Babbage describes an Analytical Engine, the first mechanical, general-purpose programmable computer.[33][34]
The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, first commercially successful electric telegraph, is designed by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke.[35][36][37]
1839
A pedal bicycle is invented by Kirkpatrick Macmillan.[38]
1840
Sir Rowland Hill reforms the postal system with Uniform Penny Post and introduces the first postage stamp, the Penny Black, on 1 May.[39]
1841
Alexander Bain patents his design produced the prior year for an electric clock.[40]
1842
Superphosphate, the first chemical fertiliser, is patented by John Bennet Lawes.[41]
1843
SS Great Britain, the world's first steam-powered, screw propeller-driven passenger liner with an iron hull is launched. Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, it was at the time the largest ship afloat.
Alexander Bain (inventor) patents a design for a facsimile machine.
1846
A design for a chemical telegraph is patented by Alexander Bain. Bain's telegraph is installed on the wires of the Electric Telegraph Company on one line. Later, in 1850, it was used in America by Henry O'Reilly.[42]
1847
Boolean algebra, the basis for digital logic, is introduced by George Boole in his book The Mathematical Analysis of Logic.[43]
1851
Improvements to the facsimile machine are demonstrated by Frederick Bakewell at the 1851 World's Fair in London.
1852
A steam-driven ploughing engine is invented by John Fowler.[44][45]
1853
English physician Alexander Wood develops a medical hypodermic syringe with a needle fine enough to pierce the skin.[46]
1854
The Playfair cipher, the first literal digraph substitution cipher, is invented by Charles Wheatstone and later promoted for use by Lord Playfair.[37]
1868
Mushet steel, the first commercial steel alloy, is invented by Robert Forester Mushet.
Thomas Humber develops a bicycle design with the pedals driving the rear wheel.
The first manually operated gas-lamp traffic lights are installed outside the Houses of Parliament on 10 December.
1869
A bicycle design is developed by Thomas McCall.
1873
Discovery of the photoconductivity of the element selenium by Willoughby Smith. This led to the invention of photoelectric cells (solar panels), including those used in the earliest television systems.
1876
Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone in the U.S.[47]
The first safety bicycle is designed by the English engineer Harry John Lawson (also called Henry). Unlike the penny-farthing, the rider's feet were within reach of the ground, making it safer to stop.
1878
Demonstration of an incandescent light bulb by Joseph Wilson Swan.[48][49]
1883
The Fresno scraper, which became a model for modern earth movers, is invented in California by Scottish emigrant James Porteous.[50]
1884
The light switch is invented by John Holmes.
1885
The first commercially successful safety bicycle, called the Rover, is designed by John Kemp Starley. The following year Dan Albone produces a derivative of this called the Ivel Safety cycle.
1886
Walter Parry Haskett Smith, often called the Father of Rock Climbing in Britain, completes his first ascent of the Napes Needle, solo and without any protective equipment.
1892
Sir Francis Galton devises a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science.[51]
1897
The world's first wireless station is established on the Isle of Wight.[52][53]
20th century[edit]
 

A Colossus computer, developed by British codebreakers in 1943-1945
1901
The first wireless signal across the Atlantic is sent from Cornwall in England and received in Newfoundland in Canada (a distance of 2,100 miles) by Italian scientist Guglielmo Marconi.[54]
1901
The first commercially successful light farm tractor is patented by Dan Albone.[55][56]
1907
Henry Joseph Round discovers electroluminescence, the principle behind LEDs.
1908
American Samuel Franklin Cody makes the first official flight of a piloted heavier-than-air machine in Britain.
1910
The first formal driving school, the British School of Motoring, is founded in London.[57]
Frank Barnwell establishes the fundamentals of aircraft design at the University of Glasgow,[58] having made the first powered flight in Scotland the previous year.
1918
The Royal Air Force becomes the first independent air force in the world[59]
1922
In Sorbonne, France, Englishman Edwin Belin demonstrates a mechanical scanning device, an early precursor to modern television.
1926
John Logie Baird makes the first public demonstration of a mechanical television on 26 January (the first successful transmissions were in early 1923 and February 1924). Later, in July 1928, he demonstrated the first colour television.[60][61]
1930
The jet engine is patented by Sir Frank Whittle.[62]
1932
The Anglepoise lamp is patented by George Carwardine, a design consultant specialising in vehicle suspension systems.
1933
The Cat's eye road marking is invented by Percy Shaw and patented the following year.
1936
English economist John Maynard Keynes publishes his work The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money which challenged the established classical economics and led to the Keynesian Revolution in the way economists thought.
The world's first public broadcasts of high-definition television are made from Alexandra Palace, North London, by the BBC Television Service. It is the first fully electronic television system to be used in regular broadcasting.[63]
1937
First available in the London area, the 999 telephone number is introduced as the world's first emergency telephone service.
1939
The initial design of the Bombe, an electromechanical device to assist with the deciphering of messages encrypted by the Enigma machine, is produced by Alan Turing at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS).[64]
1943
Colossus computer begines working, the world's first electronic digital programmable computer.[65]
1949
The Manchester Mark 1 computer, significant because of its pioneering inclusion of index registers, ran its first programme error free. Its chief designers are Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn.
1951
The concept of microprogramming is developed by Maurice Wilkes from the realisation that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer could be controlled by a miniature, highly specialised computer program in high-speed ROM.
LEO is the first business application (a payroll system) on an electronic computer.
1952
Autocode, regarded as the first compiled programming language, is developed for the Manchester Mark 1 by Alick Glennie.
1953
Englishman Francis Crick and American James Watson of Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, analyise X-ray crystallography data taken by Rosalind Franklin of King's College, to decipher the double helical structure of DNA. They share the 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work.[66]
1955
The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, is built by Louis Essen at the National Physical Laboratory. This clock enabled further development of general relativity, and started a basis for an enhanced SI unit system.[67]
1959
Metrovick 950, the first commercial transistor computer, is built by the Metropolitan-Vickers company.
1963
High strength carbon fibre is invented by engineers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment.[68]
The Lava lamp is invented by British accountant Edward Craven Walker.
1964
The first theory of the Higgs boson is put forward by Peter Higgs, a particle-physics theorist at the University of Edinburgh, and five other physicists.[69][70] The particle is discovered in 2012 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and its existence is confirmed in 2013.
1965
A pioneer of the development of dairy farming systems, Rex Paterson, set out his principles for labour management.[71]
1966
The cash machine and personal identification number system are patented by James Goodfellow.[72]
1969
The first carbon fibre fabric in the world is weaved in Stockport, England.[73]
1970
One of the first handheld televisions, the MTV-1, is developed by Sir Clive Sinclair.
1973
Clifford Cocks develops the algorithm for the RSA cipher while working at the Government Communications Headquarters, approximately three years before it was independently developed by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman at MIT. The British government declassified the 1973 invention in 1997.[74]
1977
Steptoe and Edwards successfully carried out a pioneering conception which resulted in the birth of the world's first baby to be conceived by IVF, Louise Brown on 25 July 1978, in Oldham General Hospital, Greater Manchester, UK.[75][76][77]
1979
The tree shelter is invented by Graham Tuley to protect tree seedlings.[78]
One of the first laptop computers, the GRiD Compass, is designed by Bill Moggridge.
1984
DNA profiling is discovered by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester.
One of the world's first computer games to use 3D graphics, Elite, is developed by David Braben and Ian Bell.
1989
Sir Tim Berners-Lee writes a proposal for what will become the World Wide Web. The following year, he specified HTML, the hypertext language, and HTTP, the protocol.[79]
The Touchpad pointing device is first developed for Psion computers.
1991
A patent for an iris recognition algorithm is filed by John Daugman while working at the University of Cambridge which became the basis of all publicly deployed iris recognition systems.[80][81]
The source code for the world's first web browser, called WorldWideWeb (later renamed Nexus to avoid confusion with the World Wide Web), is released into the public domain by Sir Tim Berners-Lee.
1992
The first SMS message in the world is sent over the UK's GSM network.
1995
The world's first national DNA database is developed.[82]
1996
Animal cloning, a female domestic sheep became the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, by scientists at the Roslin institute.[83]
1997
Scottish scientists at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, produce the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.[84]
The ThrustSSC jet-propelled car, designed and built in England, sets the land speed record.
21st century[edit]
2003
Beagle 2, a British landing spacecraft that forms part of the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission lands on the surface of Mars but fails to communicate. It is located twelve years later in a series of images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter that suggest two of Beagle's four solar panels failed to deploy, blocking the spacecraft's communications antenna.
2004
Graphene is isolated from graphite at the University of Manchester by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov.[85]
2005
The design for a machine to lay rail track, the "Trac Rail Transposer", is patented and goes on to be used by Network Rail in the United Kingdom and the New York City Subway in the United States.[86][87][88]
2012
Raspberry Pi, a single-board computer, is launched and quickly becomes popular for education in programming and computer science.[89]
2014
The European Space Agency's Philae lander leaves the Rosetta spacecraft and makes the first ever landing on a comet. The Philae lander was built with significant British expertise and technology, alongside that of several other countries.

so why do we still have third world industries in Britain?
If we learn from our mistakes, why aint I a genius, If you educate the masses where's the advantage for the few?

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Re: lions led by donkeys

dalek1
Simples Bellers.
Go back to the 80's and the Thatcher era when the old cow wrecked our industries rather than streamlining them and making them more efficientand rebuilding them to profitability.
She was a paranoid confrontationalist who didn't give a toss about the country unless they were rich merchant bankers
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Re: lions led by donkeys

bellend
she was undoubtedly one of the donkeys, how about Harold Wilson plenty of talk about the white heat of technology but no action.
If we learn from our mistakes, why aint I a genius, If you educate the masses where's the advantage for the few?

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Re: lions led by donkeys

Michael Towner
Banned User
I'm no fan of Harold, but at least he told Lyndon Johnson where to get off and kept us out of the Vietnam War.
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Re: lions led by donkeys

Ho-Hum
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Re: lions led by donkeys

bellend
you may have lost the point of the thread, which is where is/was the investment, why is it cheaper to bring labour in  than invest in machinery? PS I do know why but frustrating ain't it.
If we learn from our mistakes, why aint I a genius, If you educate the masses where's the advantage for the few?